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Ireland ( (listen) YRE-lənd; Irish: Éire [ˈeːɾʲə] (listen); Ulster-Scots: Airlann [ˈɑːrlən]) is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean, in north-western Europe. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel, the Irish Sea, and St George's Channel. Ireland is the second-largest island of the British Isles, the third-largest in Europe, and the twentieth-largest in the world.

Geopolitically, Ireland is divided between the Republic of Ireland (officially named Ireland), an independent state covering five-sixths of the island, and Northern Ireland, which is part of the United Kingdom. As of 2022, the population of the entire island is just over 7 million, with 5.1 million living in the Republic of Ireland and 1.9 million in Northern Ireland, ranking it the second-most populous island in Europe after Great Britain.

The geography of Ireland comprises relatively low-lying mountains surrounding a central plain, with several navigable rivers extending inland. Its lush vegetation is a product of its mild but changeable climate which is free of extremes in temperature. Much of Ireland was woodland until the end of the Middle Ages. Today, woodland makes up about 10% of the island, compared with a European average of over 33%, with most of it being non-native conifer plantations. The Irish climate is influenced by the Atlantic Ocean and thus very moderate, and winters are milder than expected for such a northerly area, although summers are cooler than those in continental Europe. Rainfall and cloud cover are abundant.

Irish culture has had a significant influence on other cultures, especially in the field of literature. Alongside mainstream Western culture, a strong indigenous culture exists, as expressed through Gaelic games, Irish music, Irish language and Irish dance. The island's culture shares many features with that of Great Britain, including the English language, and sports such as association football, rugby, horse racing, golf, and boxing.

Climate action

See List of climate assemblies, Ireland


Introduction to the All-Ireland Pollinator Plan
Authors: National Biodiversity Data Centre, Feb 26, 2018

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see also: Northern Ireland, Biodiversity

Community involvement

Neighbourhood Network - Maria
Authors: Neighbourhood Network, May 27, 2020

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Ethical consumerism

Food activism


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Origin Green, Bord Bia (The Irish Food Board) initiative to drive sustainable food production in Ireland.

FoodCloud - Greenside Up - Irish Farmers Markets - The Organic Centre - Wikipedia:GIY Ireland: registered charity based in Ireland that aims to give its members the skills and confidence needed to grow vegetables and fruit successfully. - Social Hops - Community Hop Project


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Reduce, reuse, repair and recycle

Recycle IT, the only Community Electronic Recycling Social Enterprise in Dublin, Kildare and Wicklow - Repair Cafe Ireland


Ireland (whole country) is part of the sharing cities network

Meitheal (IPA: [ˈmʲɛhəlˠ]) is the Irish word for a work team, gang, or party and denotes the co-operative labour system in Ireland where groups of neighbours help each other in turn with farming work such as harvesting crops.

The term is used in various writings of Irish language authors. It can convey the idea of community spirit in which neighbours respond to each other's needs. In modern use for example, a meitheal could be a party of neighbours and friends invited to help decorate a house in exchange for food and drink, or in scouting, where volunteer campsite wardens maintain campsites around Ireland.


Towards sustainable economies

Basic Income Ireland - Feasta, foundation for the economics of sustainability

Urban sustainability

Community Technical Aid, W


Networks and sustainability initiatives

Transition Town Kinsale celebrate their 10th birthday
Authors: TransitionTowns, Nov 23, 2015

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Street Feast -Take part with your neighbours
Authors: Neighbourhood Network, Apr 18, 2017

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Oct 20 - 28 Galway Sustainable Living Festival


November 28 - Launch of 'A Vision for Galway 2030' Transition Galway

Citizens data initiative

Fingal Open Data


Cloughjordan Ecovillage


Sustainable Community Highlights, Feb 29, 2016



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News and comment

see separate article: Ireland news

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