Nutrition or nutrition science studies the relationship between diet and states of health and disease. The scope of nutrition science ranges from malnutrition to optimal health. Many common symptoms and diseases can often be prevented or alleviated with better nutrition.

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to nutrition:

Essence of nutrition

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Food pyramid (Hill[1], 2008).
Main article: Nutrition

Branches of nutrition

History of nutrition

Main article: History of nutrition





Amino Acids


Saturated fats
Monounsaturated fats
Polyunsaturated fats
Essential fatty acids
Other Fats
Fat substitutes


Dietary fiber
Sugar substitutes
  • Artificial sugar substitutes
    • Acesulfame-K
    • Acesulfame potassium – 200x sweetness (by weight), Nutrinova, E950, FDA Approved 2003
    • Alitame – 2,000x sweetness (by weight), Pfizer, Pending FDA Approval
    • Aspartame – 160-200x sweetness (by weight), NutraSweet, E951, FDA Approved 1981
    • Cyclamate – 30x sweetness (by weight), Abbott, E952, FDA Banned 1969, pending re-approval
    • Dulcin – 250x sweetness (by weight), FDA Banned 1950
    • Neohesperidine dihydrochalcone – 1,500x sweetness (by weight), E959
    • Neotame – 8,000x sweetness (by weight), NutraSweet, FDA Approved 2002
    • P-4000 – 4,000x sweetness (by weight), FDA Banned 1950
    • Saccharin – 300x sweetness (by weight), E954, FDA Approved 1958
    • Sucralose – 600x sweetness (by weight), Tate & Lyle, FDA Approved 1998
  • Natural sugar substitutes
    • Brazzein – Protein, 2,000x sweetness of sucrose (by weight), Exxx
    • Curculin – Protein, 550x sweetness (by weight), Exxx
    • Erythritol – 0.7x sweetness (by weight), 14x sweetness of sucrose (by food energy), 0.05x energy density of sucrose
    • Fructose
    • Glycyrrhizin – 50x sweetness (by weight)
    • Glycerol – 0.6x sweetness (by weight), 0.55x sweetness (by food energy), 1.075x energy density, E422
    • Hydrogenated starch hydrolysates – 0.4x–0.9x sweetness (by weight), 0.5x–1.2x sweetness (by food energy), 0.75x energy density
    • Isomalt – 0.45x–0.65x sweetness (by weight), 0.9x–1.3x sweetness (by food energy), 0.5x energy density, E953
    • Lactitol – 0.4x sweetness (by weight), 0.8x sweetness (by food energy), 0.5x energy density, E966
    • Mabinlin – Protein, 100x sweetness (by weight), Exxx
    • Maltitol – 0.9x sweetness (by weight), 1.7x sweetness (by food energy), 0.525x energy density, E965
    • Mannitol – 0.5x sweetness (by weight), 1.2x sweetness (by food energy), 0.4x energy density, E421
    • Miraculin – Protein, nx sweetness (by weight), Exxx
    • Monellin – Protein, 3,000x sweetness (by weight), Exxx
    • Pentadin – Protein, 500x sweetness (by weight), Exxx
    • Sorbitol – 0.6x sweetness (by weight), 0.9x sweetness (by food energy), 0.65x energy density, E420
    • Stevia – 250x sweetness (by weight)
    • Tagatose – 0.92x sweetness (by weight), 2.4x sweetness (by food energy), 0.38x energy density
    • Thaumatin – Protein, – 2,000x sweetness (by weight), E957
    • Xylitol – 1.0x sweetness (by weight), 1.7x sweetness (by food energy), 0.6x energy density, E967




Organic Acids


Pyramid Groups

Qualities of food

General nutrition concepts

Diets and dieting

Nutrition problems

Behavioral problems

Nutrition politics


Nutrition scholars

Nutrition lists

Main article: Lists of nutrition topics

See also

External links

Databases and search engines

Governmental agencies and intergovernmental bodies

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  1. Ms. Bhakta’s Blog. ‘Good Shepherd Catholic School.’ <new-food-pyramid.jpg>. April 22, 2010.
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